|Home||Third Grade News||
These links are intended to be extensions to conversions held in class, as well
as to extend learning based on student interest of topics.
|History Resources||Colonial America||Thirteen Colonies||American Revolution|
|Books on the American Revolution||Black Patriots of the American Revolution||Presidents|
|U.S. Symbols||Important U.S. Documents||Biographies|
|Language Arts||Graphic Organizers||Test Prep||Skill Builder Activities|
|Country and City Mouse||Patchwork Quilt||Family Pictures|
|Dr. DeSoto||Wolves Research||Stone Fox|
|Sound||Extra Credit Opportunities|
|Health||Art||ESL-English Second Language||Keyboarding Practice|
The Pilgrim Story
Within These Walls
Interactive tour of a colonial house offered by Smithsonian.
The Decisive Day is Come
From the MA Historical Society
Americas story from Americas Library.
H.I.P. Pocket Change - Time Machine
From the U.S. Mint - explore different time periods using the Timeline.
What is it?
Try to identify what the objects are, and what they were used for.
Virtual Mount Vernon
Visit the home of George Washington through this virtual tour.
PBS Colonial House
Interactive activities, lesson plans and more.
Colonial America (1492-1763)
From the Library of Congress.
The Life of a Colonial Child
Third grade project from Germantown Academy, Ft. Washington, PA
Jamestown Online Adventure
A simulation where students make decisions for the good of the colony.
A Colonial Ship
Read the information page, and then try to unscramble the names of the parts on the handout. Label the ship correctly by looking at reference materials.
A Colonial Family and Community
Use this site to be a history detective. Investigate the lives of the Daggetts, a colonial family from Connecticut. Answer the 7 questions about life in the 1700s.
You Be the Historian
Another historical detective site. See if you can figure out what life was like 200 years ago for this family.
The Thirteen Colonies
13 Originals - Founding the American Colonies
Maps and background information on the regions.
U.S. Territorial Map of 1775
Shows the original 13 colonies.
The Thirteen Colonies
Interactive exhibit - interesting site.
Growth of a Nation Movie
Excellent animated movie explaining the growth of the U.S. using a timeline. Geared toward higher grades, but a good introduction to state and colony research.
Archiving Early America
Historical document resource site specializing in the 18th century. This site has some presentation clips which require Shockwave.
American Centuries Views from New England
Memorial Hall Museum Online - located in Deerfield, MA - nice variety of online activities, view of exhibits, lesson plans and more. Focus is on New England and life in Deerfield, MA. Timeline covers 1680-1920 with topics on Native American life, African American resources, geography and more.
The Original 13 States
Try this Crossword puzzle - print & fill in.
A Day with Felicity
From American Girl - an online activity.
Revolutionary War Interactive Site
Offered by Mr.Nussbaum.Com
Our America - Revolutionary War
Offered by Scholastic, there are online activities to learn about this time period.
Prelude to the Revolution
Timeline of major events that led up to the Revolution.
The Boston Massacre Video
History Channel video clip
The Boston Tea Party Interactive
Hosted by Have Fun With History
Paul Revere..Midnight Rider
Liberty's Kids - Part 1 of The Midnight Ride
Video clip - 9:53
Background information on Paul Revere, and his famous ride.
Famous Moments in Early American History
Video clips of famous scenes from early American history.
The American Revolution
Offered by Kidport, this site will be helpful in getting information on major events.
George Washington's Workshop
The History Channel offers this online version of the show. Interesting site, geared toward higher grades.
A Revolutionary Webquest
Geared toward upper grades, but can be used for Key Events and Heroes.
Perspectives on Liberty
Offered from PBS, choose Daily Life in the Colonies, then click on areas of the picture to find out about what life was like.
An Illustrated Tour of Valley Forge
Online virtual tour of the area.
The Library of Congress presents America's past through these links. Choose Jump Back in Time.
School of Rock - "The Shot Heard Round the World"
Song on the start of The Revolution.
Frontier Forts of the Revolution
Take a virtual tour
Books on The American Revolution
Revolutionary War On Wednesday
Magic Tree House - Questions and Activities
Sample chapters of book written by Gregory T. Edgar
Chapter questions from "Patriots" written by Gregory T. Edgar
Website supporting "Patriots" written by Gregory T. Edgar
Black Patriots of the American Revolution
Black Patriots of the American Revolution
An article that tells the stories of various patriots.
Google Book: The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution from 1855
Online sections of this book with information on several distinguished patriots.
James Armistead (Lafayette)
A spy patriot with an interesting story
Peter Salem (ca.1750-1816)
A brave Massachusetts Minuteman.
Important United States Documents
Congress for Kids - Declaration of Independence
Overview of the document.
Declaration of Independence Video
History Channel video
The Continental Congress Video clip
The Declaration of Independence
Ben's Guide to this important document.
Ben's Guide to The Bill of Rights
Overview of document.
Play "Save the Bill of Rights!"
Interactive game offered from the National Constitution Center.
Charters of Freedom
The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights.
Library of Congress - Primary Sources
Important primary sources materials to teach history.
Smithsonian-Presidents Online Exhibit
Profiles of U.S. Presidents. Interesting site.
History Channel-The Presidents
This great resource provides lots of biographical information about our leaders.
Symbols of the United States
The Liberty Bell
Background history on this famous bell.
Virtual Tour of Philadelphia
Start with the Liberty Bell, and move on to other locations.
The History of the American Flag
A Thinkquest project.
The Star Spangled Banner - Video Clip
United States Flag
Answer the questions after visiting the Internet links to find the answers.
Symbols of U.S.Government
Offered from Ben's Guide to U.S. Government.
Famous Bay Staters/Biographies
Abigail Smith Adams wife of John Adams
John Adams 2nd U.S. president, Braintree
John Quincy Adams 6th U.S. president, Braintree
Samuel Adams patriot, Boston
Louisa May Alcott author, Concord
Susan B. Anthony woman suffragist, Adams
Clara Barton American Red Cross Founder, Oxford
William Bradford Gov. of Plymouth Colony
George Bush 41st U.S. president, Milton
John Singleton Copley painter, Boston
Emily Dickinson poet, Amherst
Ralph Waldo Emerson philosopher, poet, Boston
Benjamin Franklin statesman, scientist, Boston
Ben Franklin Video
John Hancock statesman, Braintree
Nathaniel Hawthorne author, Salem
John F. Kennedy U.S.president, Brookline
Samuel F. B. Morse painter, inventor, Charlestown
Robert Treat Paine Declaration signer, Boston
Paul Revere patriot, Boston
Norman Rockwell painter, Stockbridge
Henry David Thoreau author, Concord
Eli Whitney inventor, Westborough
John Greenleaf Whittier poet, Haverhill
Map and Geography Skills
Find out about the earth's surface.
How Can I remember Longitude & Latitude?
Lesson to help you remember which is which.
Latitude & Longitude Game
Offered by Teacher First.
Geography Online Text
Interactive site that explains various terms.
Our stories are available online through this link.
Check out the various skill builder games.
ELA Interactive Activities
Standards with activities - good for the Smartboard
Reading Buddy Task Cards
Read and discuss stories using these questions with your reading buddy.
Additional Reading Buddy Task Cards
Read and discuss stories using these questions with your reading buddy.
Basic Handwriting - Lowercase Cursive
Animation shows how to form letters properly.
Basic Handwriting - Uppercase Cursive
Animation for additional practice.
Spelling and Vocabulary
Houghton Mifflin offers this online practice tool. See how you do - I challenge you!
The Syllables Factory
This online activity comes from the BBC.
Dividing Words into Syllables
Presentation on the rules for syllabication
Identify prefixes, root words, suffixes in these activities
Skillswise Grammar Activities
If you like the Syllable Factory above, try out some of the other activities listed on this page.
To, Too, or Two - Develop an Understanding of Homophones Teacher:Lesson on creating a Comic Strip.
Wacky Tales Try this online Madlib tool to create wacky stories. Fill in the blank using the parts of speech guideline.
Use this site to get started on researching famous personalities.
Wizards & Pigs
Find out about rhymes, alliteration, and rhythm by moving through the maze, listening to the poems and deciding what each is.
Rhyme Time Riddles
Poetry Writing with Karla Kuskin
Scholastic interactive poetry class.
Poetry Writing with Jack Prelutsky
Scholastic interactive poetry class.
Annie's Rhyme Time
Interactive rhyming activity
Writing I Spy Riddle Rhymes
Scholastic interactive class.
Skill Builder Activities
Storytown Support Wiki - Vocabulary Building Activities
Good resource for Daily 5 - Activities broken out by Theme
Storytown Reading E-Book
Good resource for Daily 5
Word building game.
Online activities to help develop vocabulary - wordsearch, hangman, crossword and more
Getting the Right Tense
Practice identifying past, present and future tense.
Prefixes Say Plenty
A short presentation on prefixes.
Make predictions based on the story prompts.
Main Idea Tutorial
What is the main idea? Use this tutorial to help you build this skill.
Main Idea Practice
Work through the lesson to help practice this skill.
Use the picture clues to put the story in the right order.
Look, Cover, Write, Check
Ski Lodge Vacation
Choose the 3rd grade activities, and then choose "Ski Lodge Vacation". Match the vowel word sounds
Practice using prefixes
Feast of Homonyms
Match the homonyms on the screen
Print off and finish the activity
Choose the third grade folder to practice proofreading.
Choose the type of sentence.
Self-study Grammar Skill Practice
Anthology-Story Support Links
Storytown Resources-Third Grade
Individual Lesson idea links.
Other grade level links Harcourt Resources all Grades
Ohio Resource Center - Literacy K-5
Activity links to Literacy skills - book suggestions for skills, Stringbean's trip to the Shining Sea
The online version of Stringbean.
The Country Mouse and City Mouse
The Country Mouse and the City Mouse
The Online version of this Aesop's Tale
The Patchwork Quilt
Exploring Geometry through Quilts
This webquest explores symmetry of quilts and has some online activities.
MysteryNet's Kids Magic
Try out some of the tricks listed on this page. There might be some ideas for the upcoming magic show.
Magic Tricks for Kids
Check out some of the tricks on this page.
Family Pictures from A visit to the Southwest
Online Picture Dictionary with audio on words.
Maggies Online Adventure
Scholastic offers these online activities to help learn Spanish.
Spanish Activities Online
This theme covers the Southwest, and provides the Spanish version of our first story. These activities provide students with additional links to strengthen their understanding to this language.
Spanish Language Quiz
Not really a quiz - just another way to practice Spanish phrases and words. Have fun!
Carmen Lomas Garza, Author Site
Visit the authors homepage from this link. Site provides access to additional artwork, and background on the author.
American Dental Association Games & Information
Find out about oral health, play some games.
A database of information on keeping teeth healthy.
Nothing but the Tooth
Find out more about the tooth with this online activity.
BBC - Nutrition & Teeth
We have been discussing good nutrition in health. Here is your chance to practice what you have been learning, along with finding out a bit more about teeth.
Colgate:The Legend of Tooth Kingdom
Online animated story
Teeth and Eating
Online lesson about keeping teeth healthy.
Wolves Research Project
The Boy Who Cried Wolf
Online book with audio
Student Entry Page to Wise Project on Wolves
This activity will be completed in the Computer Lab. For more information on how to use this project, click on the information page. International Wolf Center/Gray Wolves, Gray Matters
This link can help you with finding out more about wolves. The site also has a simulation game on wolves - Can you survive the call of the wild?.
Wolf Species from Animal Corner
This site has information on a variety of wolf species - check this out for your poster research.
Online resource to find facts for your report.
Wolves of the World
Find out facts about wolves from differenet regions here.
Wolves-Nat'l Geographic Kids
Facts, Photo's, Video & Sound on this animal.
Boomer Wolf University
Links to the answers on some of KWL questions.
What's in a Howl?
Nova - Wild Wolves
Wild Animal Watch - Wolves
Wolves and Dogs/Fact and Fiction
Try this quiz to see what you already know.
All About Wolves
Many of your questions will be answered here.
A Thinkquest project done by a 5th grade class. Includes sound audio used in communication.
Wolves for Kids
This site comes from Alaska, and includes some very interesting facts about wolves.
Pictures of Wolves
This organization lists information about wolves, and how to protect them in the environment.
Artic Wolf facts
Starts with pictures and information about the artic wolf, then moves on to the other breeds.
The Gray Wolf
Pictures and information about the gray wolf.
Red Wolves of Alligator River
Find out about the reintroduction of wolves to North Carolina. Online field trip.
Mexican Gray Wolf
Information on this specific wolf with video files as well.
Lobos(Wolf) of the Southwest
Specific information to help get specific details for your poster.
Student Report on Wolves
See a sample report done on artic wolves.
Yellowstone Wolf Tracker
See pack pictures, and get some additional facts.
Food Chain lesson
Interactive activity to help understand this topic.
National Geographic and Brainpop video
BBC - Food Chains
Find out about food chains in the animal world.
Chain Reaction- Build a Food Chain
Can you build a food chain?
Working the Food Chain
Choose Working the Food Chain link from the main page. Storybook form explaining the food chain.
Food Web - Menu
Try your luck at putting the food chain together in each of the categories.
TFK-The Call of the Wild
Article explaining gray wolves being reintroduces to Yellowstone.
Wolves Reshape Yellowstone Park
National Geographic Kids article on wolves.
Stone Fox/Iditarod Resources
Story questions and resources.
Iditarod - Race Across Alaska
Interactive activities offered from Scholastic to learn about this annual race.
Online activity to learn about the race.
Dog Sled Basics
Diagram of the setup.
Read about a dog sled race, then answer the questions.
The Jr. Iditarod Race
Print off the worksheet, then research the race and answer the questions.
Sign in as a guest, and then choose the 2 sled dog activities - see if you can problem solve for the team.
Print resources to support the topic.
Ten types of math problem pages to print and solve.
Iditarod Readers Theatre
Print off to perform Readers Theatre.
Claymation example developed by students.
Add'l resource ideas
The World Of Beverly Cleary
This is the authors website, it has a biography, information on her characters, and games based off her books.
BBC Titanic Tour
This interactive site has video clips of the research.
The Deep Sea
National Geographic has included this interactive site so visitors can explore the deep. Have fun!
Tonight on the Titanic
Magic Tree House - Questions and Activities
Check out this resource on icebergs.
Robert Ballard Biography
Offered from Harcourt Online activities - read about this interesting explorer.
Follow the passengers as they start their trip on the Titanic.
Ocean Planet: How Deep Do They Go?
From the Museum of Science & Industry
Great Barrier Reef
Dive the Great Barrier Reef virtually sponsored by National Geographic
Science Explorations - Squid
Find out about fossils and Cephapods
You Wouldn't Want to Sail on the Whaling Ship Essex!
Find out about sailing on the Essex.
Grimm's Fairy Tales Online
From KidsDomain - The Nutcracker Story and Music
Cinderella Around the World
Activities tied to Cinderella.
Grimm Fairy Tales
Online activities tied to stories.
Text organizers to help with the writing process.
Excellent site to introduce writing styles to students or guide students through their own writing.
Circle Plot Diagram
This interactive tool allows students to list labels and details in a circular pattern. Assists in sequencing details.
Use this tool to create character maps on your own.
Step Up To Writing
Walk through presentation and graphic organizers to use with this approach.
Book Report Templates
Ideas for book reports
Many ideas to choose from
What's For Dinner?
A Fossweb activity to learn about nutrition.
Kids site to explore nutrition.
MyPyramid.Gov - Food
Various health related games.
My Body - The Inside Story
Online content and activities covering health topics.
The balanced plate
BBC - Animals, Bones & Organs
Find out about the human body, and practice putting our pieces back together.
FEMA for Kids: Safety Video
Human Body ebook
Can you guess the body part?
Medtropolis-Virtual Body Tour
Take a narrated version of the tour of the human body.
The Amazing Human Body
From Harcourt School
Glencoe Biology Videos
Various short video clips that we cover in class.
Glencoe Earth Science Videos
Earth Science video clips.
Glencoe Science Health Videos
Various health related short clips.
Grade 3 MacMillan Science - Interactive Activities
Independent or Smartboard interactive activities that support all science topics
Science Topics - quick pops
Quick science links
Science Up Close: Grade 3 topics
Online activities to help understanding of topic. Videos and interactive activities.
AIM Manufacturing Video
From Stanford - How everyday things are made.
Scott Foresman Science Resources
Internet extension activities.
Learn about the natural features of the landscape.
Museum of Science Online Video
Various topics that we'll be looking at this year.
Research links on various topics.
Houghton Science Animations
All topics and animations for discoveries - good smartboard activity
Adaptations in Land Environments
MacMillan text support for science.
Learn about what lives in this habitat.
Be sure to click on "Life in the Pond".
Click on the animals in Poster 1 and 2.
All About Ponds
Learn about a pond's life cycle.
What's it like in the Desert?
A good site to find out more about the desert habitat.
A good resource to find out more about plants of the desert.
Nice site on different desert locations.
National Geographic - Deserts & Tundra Habitats
Take a virtual tour.
Human & Animal Habitats
Offered by GlaxoSmithKline - try this online activity.
Scholastics-Magic School Bus -Habitat Match
Explore the Fantastic Forest
National Geographic site to introduce visitors to our environment.
Biomes of the World
Offered by the Missouri Botanical Garden, this online resource provides an overview on the different biomes.
Thinkquest - Biomes & Habitats
Provides visuals on locating each type of area, climate and features. Also includes information on animal life.
Biomes of the World
Brief overview of locations with additional resource links.
Build a Prairie
Read through the descriptions of plants and animals to restore the prairie. Make decisions on what to use as you bring life back to this habitat.
National Geographic offers this interactive site to explore this region, and the animals that live there.
Online activity with three sections.
Roofus' Solar & Efficient Home
Find out about renewable energy from this U.S. Dept. of Energy site.
Visit this site to find answers for this lab activity.
Visit the Mine Virtually
Find out about the process for mining coal to heat shelters
Harvesting the Hardwoods
Follow the history of cutting down hardwoods
Fossil Fuels, Solar Energy, and Nuclear Energy
Museum of Science Simple Machines
Interactive activity to explain simple machines
Let's Go Work on the Playground
Practice identifying simple machines in the playground.
Simple Machines Made Simple
Story lesson explaining simple machines.
Edheads.org - A fun site to learn about all the simple and compound machines that we use.
National Geographic - Tool Time
How clever animals get stuff done. Animals and their use of tools.
From the Museum of Science and the Leonardo exhibit.
Can You Guess This Invention?
View Leonardo's Inventions, and guess what it is?
Build a Rube Goldberg Machine
Play with these simple machines to make the Rube Goldberg Machine work.
Rube Goldberg Official Site
Find out about this interesting man, and his imaginative inventions.
Learn about the the principles of push and pull by helping Cyril get the cheese to his hole.
Identify the Sound
Lesson and activity on identifying sounds
Energy In The Air - From the Orchestra
Thinkquest activity explaining sound and energy with the various instruments of the orchestra
Science of acoustics
Put the phases of the moon in the right order.
Is Earth The Only Planet?
A webquest to reinforce understanding of the solar system. **Extra Credit Opportunity.**
Phases of the Moon
Online simulation showing the phases.
Do you know the Constellations?
Online activity from Harcourt explaining different constellations.
Wow! This is an interesting site - take the controls, and find out about Black Holes
Thirstin's Water Cycle
From the EPA - explains the water cycle.
The Journey of Water
Flash animation of the water cycle.
Edheads - offers this interactive site to learn about the conditions necessary for different types of weather. A must see site!
Track a Hurricane
Practice tracking hurricanes with Longitude and Latitude.
Earthscience Center-Hurricane Lab
This site is a lot of fun as well as very informative.
USA Today - Hurricane Animation
Flash animation explaining how a hurricane forms.
The science of hurricanes
Links to research this topic.
Snowcrystals.com = the science behind snow.
Many activities on snow.
Liquid, Solid, Gas
Plants and our environment
Website about plants - how they grow, and their parts.
The Secret Life of Trees
Travel with Pierre to explore the life cycle of trees.
Trees are terrific - travel with Pierre
From the University of Illinois, an explanation on trees and their importance.
Dr. Arbor Talks Trees
Find out about the life cycle of trees
Name that tree
Print off the page, visit the Internet links included and write the answers.
What Tree Is It?
Reference guide to name and identify trees.
BBC - Plants
Investigate plant life with this online activity.
Life Cycle of Plants
Practice using science vocabulary and labeling parts of a plant with this activity.
Life Cycle of Plants
Three activities to promote understanding.
Science Extra Credit
Visit these sites and write a paragraph or create a poster explaining what the site is about.
Earthquakes & Tsunamis
Links to research on this topic.
Thomas Edison and his inventions
Biography and information on this interesting inventor.
Visit the different locations on this site. Some have been created by students.
Virtual Pig Dissection
Can you make it snow?
Visit this simulation from Scholastic to see if you can make it snow. Be sure to read the descriptions at the bottom of the picture, so you can understand what conditions are necessary for snow. Write a 1 page explanation, or create a poster that explains why it snows.
Print off the worksheet, visit the San Francisco Zoo information page on Polar Bears (link included on web page under #2), answer the questions and then turn in for extra credit.
National Geographic (CritterCam Chronicles) offers this interactive site on the Arctic. We read about the Inuit, find out more about the animals that live in this habitat.
What is this picture of?
Extra Credit Opportunity: *Write a paragraph on the picture* How was this picture taken? What time of day was this picture taken? What does the picture show? What information can you tell from this picture? (continent & population)
Home Sweet Home
Complete this activity on termites - print off the page, visit the Internet links to find the answers, complete the page and then turn in for extra credit.
PBS-Nature-Inside the Hive
Interactive activity explaining the bee hive.
Fossweb -Science Activities
Science module activities to help learn multiple science topics.
Weather Wiz Kids
A meteorologist has designed this site for kids to explore the different types of weather. Fun site!
An online simulation to outsmart the weather patterns in a race around the world.
K-4 Earth Science Modules
Lots of activities here - game show, research, art ideas and more.
The Artists Toolkit
This is a fun and informative site for budding artists. Do you see the math connection?
Online Test Prep Resources
Practice for Massachusetts MCAS on this site.
Houghton Mifflin - Grammar Blast
Online quiz - game format.
Houghton Mifflin - Power Proofreading
Practice proofreading skills with this online activity.
Texas Grade 3 Online Test Assessment Prep
Practice test taking with this online activity.
Houghton Mifflin Test Prep
Brainchild Online Test Prep
Online assessment. Read story passages, then answer multiple choice questions.
Read these rhymes and use the details to figure out what they are talking about. Inference Activity.
Kids Lab-Inferential Context Clues
From Florida - try this activity to figure out a words meaning. Click on the pulldown menu to choose other practice pages.
Main Idea Tutorial
Kids Lab Main Idea Tutorial.
Main Idea Practice Page
More practice with the main idea of stories.
Can you predict what will happen is a story?
Compare/Contrast Quiz Practice
MCAS Online Practice
Boston Public Library resource
Prentice Hall - Social Studies Skills Practice
Literacy skills review using S.S. topics as a guide.
Massachusetts DOE Student Test Prep
Sample student work and scoring guide.
ESL Internet Resources
Haitian Creole Dictionary
Type in the English phrase, and the translation comes back.
ESL Student Resource Center
Lots of activities here to help with english immersion.
English Page-Learning Online
Interactive activities to learn english vocabulary.
The Internet Picture Dictionary
Pictures with words and activities for vocabulary.
Numerouse activity links for the early english learner.
Free translation from many languages.
Choose the language, type the phrase, get the translation.
Activities to assess English knowledge, and activities to promote learning English.
Activities for ESL/EFL
Language based activities to learn English
Reading A-Z download books
Preview copies of downloadable stories from the web.
Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension for ESL
Activities and links to resources and activities.
Reading is Fundamental-Online Stories
Offered from RIF - stories with audio
UCLA Language Material for ESL
Resources for less commonly taught languages
Word to Word translator
Multiple languages covered with this site.
Category links to multimedia to help the esl student access curriculum topics.
Math for ESL
Various links with some resources that highlight and say words to assist in learning math vocabulary.
ELS Teacher Resources
Mainstream ESL Teacher
Teacher Resources on the Above Topics
Score: Teacher Guide for Ben and Me
Lesson plan ideas with additional links for use in the computer lab.
Third Grade Skills
Interactive sites on the web to build curriculum skills
Science Online Resources
Free Educational Videos
Various curriculum topics covered.
Technology Resources - Internet Safety
Various lessons and printouts for teaching about Internet Safety
BBC Schools Typing Instruction
Use this online tutorial to learn keyboarding.
abcya Keyboard Challenge
Practice learning the keyboard with this activity.
Typing Master Online Bubbles
Learn the letters on the keyboard with this practice game.
Another tutorial for extra practice
This resource created and maintained by Susan Herook (*All Rights Reserved*) Last Updated January 2012